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A dynamics regime of Rydberg atoms, unselective ground-state blockade (UGSB), is proposed in the context of Rydberg antiblockade (RAB), where the evolution of two atoms is suppressed when they populate in an identical ground state. UGSB is used to implement a SWAP gate in one step without individual addressing of atoms. Aiming at circumventing common issues in RAB-based gates including atomic decay, Doppler dephasing, and fluctuations in the interatomic coupling strength, we modify the RAB condition to achieve a dynamical SWAP gate whose robustness is much greater than that of the nonadiabatic holonomic one in the conventional RAB regime. In addition, on the basis of the proposed SWAP gates, we further investigate the implementation of a three-atom Fredkin gate by combining Rydberg blockade and RAB. The present work may facilitate to implement the RAB-based gates of strongly coupled atoms in experiment.
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Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are locked into self-renewal by shielding from inductive cues. Release from this ground state in minimal conditions offers a system for delineating developmental progression from naïve pluripotency. Here, we examine the initial transition process. The ES cell population behaves asynchronously. We therefore exploited a short-half-life Rex1::GFP reporter to isolate cells either side of exit from naïve status. Extinction of ES cell identity in single cells is acute. It occurs only after near-complete elimination of naïve pluripotency factors, but precedes appearance of lineage specification markers. Cells newly departed from the ES cell state display features of early post-implantation epiblast and are distinct from primed epiblast. They also exhibit a genome-wide increase in DNA methylation, intermediate between early and late epiblast. These findings are consistent with the proposition that naïve cells transition to a distinct formative phase of pluripotency preparatory to lineage priming.
These results reveal that TFs associated with pluripotency display individual expression behaviour as ES cells transition from the ground state. RGd2 downregulation appears to reflect aggregate loss of naïve TFs against a background of persistent Oct4 and Sox2 expression.
To determine the time of exit from the ground state, entire cultures or subpopulations sorted on the basis of RGd2 expression at selected time points were re-plated at single cell density in serum/LIF (serum/L) and 2i/LIF (2i/L). Resulting colonies were stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity (Fig. 4A).
To examine global expression dynamics, we carried out microarray profiling using three biological replicates. We also performed RNA-seq on independently derived RGd2 ES cell lines. We found a total of 8810 genes in the microarray that were differentially expressed between at least two subpopulations (Table S3). Consistent with the activation of MEK/ERK and GSK3 upon 2i withdrawal, we observed changes in the expression of components of the pathway and transcriptional targets. Activation of MEK/ERK is reflected in the upregul